Facilitating Trade and E-Commerce in the ESCWA Region




Facilitating Trade and E-Commerce in the ESCWA Region

Online buying and selling operations are growing at an ever-increasing rate, giving way to unparalleled opportunities

her predecessor. Individuals, entrepreneurs, and governments around the world are using this technological revolution to conduct their transactions

commercially. E-commerce activity has, until today, existed mainly among OECD countries

In the economic field, especially in the United States of America. Programs are being developed in these countries

And new protocols, and the adoption of security and legal measures, all of which contribute to an increase in the volume of e-commerce.

The largest spread of online trading is observed in the United States, followed by the European Union. in this

Countries have expanded e-commerce to the point that it is expected to account for between 10 and 25 percent of trade

world by 2003, thus becoming a major component of cross-border trade flows (1). This indicates

The importance of e-commerce in managing commerce efficiently, and reducing transaction costs related to it in a way

tremendous at the same time.

However, e-commerce occupies the top of the pyramid in "web" applications in terms of its complexity and impact, and future implications (2). It is linked to a number of problems including the issue of Internet security, where

E-commerce continues to be subject to fraud, misconduct and theft; and application performance, which is

This is very important when using multiple communication catalogs and product offerings. The requirements must be met

Adequate e-commerce bandwidth to support commercial transactions from product offering to end

hand it over. The major companies that practice e-commerce do not face any problems in this regard, while they do not

Small and medium-sized businesses and consumers can afford the bandwidth they need

for commercial activities. Therefore, it is important to improve communication facilities to support such transactions. In addition, it must

Laws and regulations reflect this new technology by certifying signatures, certificates, and documents.

Policymakers are challenged by the rapid advancement of digital business transactions and communications. presence

The Internet and its widespread use have opened a new era of communication that requires a change of management, especially in terms of

related to trade. Developing countries cannot remain outside the direct global market provided by the Internet

They will be marginalized. Therefore, it is very important for these countries to do what they can to embrace the wave of change

Take advantage of this new opportunity.

E-commerce can provide opportunities for developing countries to increase their exports and achieve greater growth. and what

Since most of the trade in the future will be conducted electronically, these countries will have to redouble efforts to create

The ground is needed to facilitate this trading style. E-commerce can help small businesses

and medium to offer their products at low prices in new markets. At the same time, it can allow governments

By purchasing capital and other goods in a more efficient and economical way, and also helping to reduce bills

Import and increase export revenues. But that will only happen if individuals, governments, and the private sector cooperate to create

The right environment for e-commerce to flourish.

Most developing countries are showing interest in joining the global market, and they have taken steps to become part of the world market.

From the ongoing revolution in the field of communications and information. Some of them have started upgrading the telecommunications infrastructure.

and licensing of Internet service providers (ISPs). Internet commerce should follow, but on

In many economic sectors, it will be general politics

Bootstrap for efficient operations must be changed in order to

Governments and the private sector must cooperate in adapting to this new reality.

ESCWA member states have been taking steps to provide the required processing facilities for trade operations.

It has been connected to the Internet for several years, with the disparity in the network connections of individuals and although the number of Internet subscribers in the region is still relatively low, ren - they are practicing -


country to another. So far,

It is expected that this activity will increase with the number of Internet subscribers.


commercial activities.


Most business deals in the ESCWA region are managed by individuals and businesses who like to import products the way they are.

Although the Internet also provides them with opportunities to sell products abroad. And based on it, and to narrow it down

The gap between imports and exports must be taken by governments and commercial companies in the private sector, as well as

Individuals, some measures--to win--a central role--in--global--electronic commerce--. Either--Banks--Institutions--

Finance should also accept payments for transactions related to direct commerce on the Internet.

This study will address the experience of electronic commerce in ESCWA member countries. So how much is - what?

Be--the private sector, governments--and NGOs--to effect-e-change--? And what steps have been taken to implement e-commerce in these countries? In addition to that, the study will examine the factors that need to be found.

To ensure the success of the e-commerce experience.

The first chapter of the study presents an overview of electronic commerce, including its definition and its development. mother-

The second chapter examines the importance of e-commerce to developing countries.

and its current status in the world.

The third chapter will explore at length the various elements required to get started with e-commerce, with a particular emphasis on what

It is taking place in ESCWA member countries. Each of the following four chapters deals with the status of electronic commerce in

Four--European Countries--Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, and United Arab Emirates--United Arab Emirates. And finally, chapter  VIII to

Conclusions and provides recommendations for member countries to consider in their pursuit of electronic commerce.

E-commerce: an overview

It is useful to keep in mind, for statistical purposes, that the definition of an e-commerce center

And it is - specific, because - it should be - immediately measurable. Either - in - public policy - as you know - commerce

electronic in the sense of due to the need - to - assessment - the impact of operations - associated with

A country (3) will be adopted for the purposes of this study, which aims to support sound policy formulation

E-commerce is a means of buying and selling goods and services on the Internet.

Because the goal of defining e-commerce is to define the framework required to help developing countries in their own countries

In order to implement successful strategies to engage them in the global electronic market, it is also useful to mention the three trends that lie at the core of the growth of e-commerce, i.e., business enterprises (from one company to another)

business (B-to-B); business-to-consumer (B-to-C) commerce; B2C B-to-C Commerce Business Enterprise Business Company to Government -

(from B to G). The first trend - that is, from - to - a company, - is expected to increase - in the country. - Dan's Development - Once - Beginning

Their practices are in e-commerce, as companies in those countries have the means to work electronically efficiently. And so - this - could - become - the second direction - that is - from the company - to the consumer, which - followed by - - finally - companies like -

"Amazon.com" and "eBay.com", are applied in developing countries. While dealing - from the company - to the consumer - locally

Perhaps in developing countries, selling to consumers abroad is still more difficult. In order for these countries to be able to

Create an export market from the company to the consumer, and trading companies must improve the quality of their products.


either direction


They can also target their fellow expatriates to sell their local products.


In order to develop its competitive advantages.


The third - that is - from the company - to - the government - is - more - effective - in - procurement general - when - direct participation

Governments of developing countries in e-commerce transactions.

However, these trends and descriptive definitions of e-commerce may not be enough. Work definition

It may be useful for developing countries to formulate their strategies and take measures to implement e-commerce. Louie- I

In fact, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has established two working definitions of e-commerce.

The first profile, called the "horizontal" profile, relates to the interests of the company. When companies decide to operate electronically,

It will have to confirm the supply chain of e-commerce through a succession of business functions, i.e.


Provides - this definition - companies -


Marketing - Sales / Contracts - Delivery and Billing / Payment - Invoicing (Form - MSDP).

With a practical checklist to identify obstacles and opportunities.


As for the definition --- the second ---, whose name is --- the definition --- "vertical ---", it takes into account the interests of governments.

And - this definition - provides - a quick checklist - of strategic choices that governments should make - to - q

The right environment for the growth of e-commerce. The vertical definition requires the presence of infrastructure (communication), messages -

(coordination and standardization of electronic messages), basic rules (WTO - WTO - and royalties - intellectual -), sectoral rules (banking, security, online music, film circulation, education-

(Health, Health, Applications) Design effective websites and implement appropriate corporate strategies.

The model is also the areas in which international organizations such as UNCTAD, the World Trade Organization, the International Telecommunication Union, and the World Intellectual Property Organization can contribute to helping governments - rules - and regulations -

And the standards required in these countries to participate in global e-commerce

E-commerce development

While e-commerce has been a common practice among large companies for more than two decades.
Through the electronic data link interface, e-commerce started about ten years ago.
Only when the World Wide Web (the Web) was developed as a tool for public use. In fact, the web is currently the app
Most popular on the Internet among individuals who want to have websites on the Internet all day long, either to publish
Information, advertising, sale, and supply of goods and services (5).

A quick look at the evolution of the Internet and the web will help in understanding the evolution of e-commerce. He began
Working online for nearly three decades as a DARPA pilot network
control  protocol It was used according to
in the United States of America
Gradually, access to the Internet began to move from the military sector to public institutions and academia. and in
At the end of the 1980s, Berners-Lee, a researcher at the European Laboratory of Particle Physics in Geneva, created,
The Web is an associative text for software packages that allow physicists to transmit information directly on the Internet. and allowed
The associative text of documents should refer to each other so that “the web, thanks to its adaptive structure, can be
more appropriate in its description of real life, than a static database.” Moreover, the web can transcend platforms
Computers are to be the front end of most Internet applications. As a result, Berners-Lee increased in
Web development as a popular tool is slowly beginning to be introduced to the internet world. But the web did not achieve great stability until after the generalization

The current state of e-commerce

Although estimates differ regarding the volume of electronic transactions, there is consensus that the flow of goods
The services traded on the Internet will increase exponentially.

From company to The total global e-commerce will reach
Forrester Research by the company
From company to consumer to $756 billion in 2000, jumping to $8.6 trillion
E-commerce in America topping it is expected that
. (1

(see table 4002  US dollars per year
The list of northern regions in 2000 and 2004 recorded $3.905 billion and $5.3 trillion
American, respectively. Western Europe is expected to rank second in the year 2000 with sales of
And the Pacific region during the same year with sales
With a value of 4.78 billion US dollars, followed by
$7.35 billion. However, this area will move to second place during the year 4002, leaving behind
Western Europe ranks third, with e-commerce transactions amounting to $6.1 trillion and $1.5 trillion.
American, respectively.

The Middle East and Africa regions are not included in the table and can be considered as part of the "rest of the world".
Forrester in 2000 for the rest of the world was estimated at $2.3 billion, while the figure is estimated at $2.3 billion.
In 2004 to 6.86 billion US dollars. This reflects the need of developing countries, including member states of
E-Commerce And that Strengthening its position in the global economy in particular
The meaning of the strategy Extrapolates  ESCWA, to
In Western Europe, which is the number one partner of ESCWA member states, this percentage is increasing rapidly.

Nationwide, forecasts put the United States first in terms of commercial sales.
electronics, with the highest sales in the world throughout the entire period 2000-2004. it is expected that
The value of online commerce in the United States is $7.884 billion and $2.3 trillion
Trade Japan, where transactions are expected to increase, followed by salary, and 4,002,002 in two years
E-commerce increased from $9.13 billion in 2000 to $3.088 billion in 2004. 6.02 up
As for Germany's e-commerce sales, which is expected to put it in third place, it will be
$1 billion and $5.683 billion in 2000 and 2004, respectively. These numbers indicate that the giants
The three companies will run more and more of their businesses electronically. E-commerce sales are expected to reach
During 2004, as a percentage of all sales, 3.31 percent in the USA, and 4.8 percent in
percent in Japan and 5.6 percent in Germany. Perhaps this trend will stimulate the rest of the world to increase their activities in working with companies doing business in possible e-commerce.
Other companies are also involved in e-commerce, and companies outside the electronic chain may
Leave it aside. These figures assume that developing countries will have to make serious preparations for effective participation in the Conference

It is clear that the spread of the Internet is the main factor behind the advancement of e-commerce. speed spread
They are changing at a pace that happens to expand the Internet and, indeed, electronically. Behind the rapid progress of trade is also
The Internet is preceded by comparison to other means of communication. Radio took 53 years, and PC 61 years.

Despite this surge in information and communication technology, e-commerce has not yet developed.

and wan

In the year 1999, the number of Internet users in the world as a whole was estimated at 062 million people. Entirely so far.

The space for a greater volume in electronic commerce was not for a number of

multiplied by its fold, allowing this number can increase

Barriers, particularly in relation to business-to-consumer trade. One of the factors that prevented the launch of trade
The full potential of the Internet is the lack of awareness of e-commerce, particularly in developing countries. add to

Websites and complicate some

while connected to the network, Payments Safe processes for payment that the shortage of that

Difficulty using them, delays in the delivery process, distrust of transaction procedures, and fear of breach of contracts,
All of them contributed to the fact that e-commerce could have done better. In short, the existence of consciousness

e-commerce operations, combined with solutions to ensure payment security, privacy,
Without breach of contracts, e-commerce will experience a boom like never before. With the exception of the United States of America, it remains
in the field
E-commerce in the world as a whole is in its infancy stage, even in OECD countries

It remains that, although it may be a matter of time before e-commerce begins to change the economy
However, it will inevitably remain, and developing countries must be prepared for this. Although this trade is advancing rapidly
Increasingly, the electronic market is relatively small and has not reached its full potential. It is expected to be about 6.8 percent
Only the world's sales in the year 2004, due to the reluctance of the developing world to pursue electronic commerce. In the same year, it is expected that the ratio of e-commerce sales to total sales in the United States will be
It will represent
The United States will continue to be at the fore in electronic commerce.
percent.  3.31  This contradicts what has been published in the media
the bulk of its e-commerce. the company to the company
Transactions from Books and various kinds of wine
the Internet, such as selling
straight through the consumer to the company that trades from the media
and computers, constitute a large part of electronic commerce. The figures showed that most of the direct trade through
The Internet was taking place between companies that were providing suppliers to other companies. In fact, the value of transactions from the company to
The firm exceeds all estimates of the value of firm-to-customer transactions (9.)

In sum, electronic commerce is growing, and it has become a new force for globalization, affecting 
almost all countries of the world. Although it is still in its initial stages, it is expected that it will grow in strength as its approach becomes easier.
The rapid in doing business is popular. The United States leads the world in electronic commerce and will continue to
In this, the market from company to company will represent most of its trade. It will alternate between Europe, Asia, and the Ocean
The Pacific is second in e-commerce, while the rest of the world has a lot to catch up with.

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